The need for energy storage in electric power grids is increasing in significance as more capacity generation uses inherently intermittent renewable energy sources. With increased renewable input, the spinning reserve of large networks is less able to maintain power quality, and the strategies needed for maximizing renewable production are leading to energy storage. To add on, it is desirable to store electrochemical energy in batteries because it is lightweight, simple to use and economical and provides a virtually immediate response both to battery input and network output.
Moving forward, there is a wide range of battery chemicals available and lead batteries provide a reliable, cost-effective solution that is suited to different energy storage applications. Lead-acid batteries are distributed across a wider, well-established worldwide manufacturer base and have both in terms of output selling volume and MWh the biggest rechargeable battery market share. Batterie Al Piombo includes metallic lead, lead dioxide, lead sulfate, and sulfuric acid. The negative electrodes are made of metallic tubing that often includes small pieces such as calcium, nickel, antimony. For different compositions, the positive electrodes are made of lead oxides. Lead and lead oxides by international health and environmental regulations shall be listed as hazardous heavy metal materials.
The sulfuric acid solution is contained in an electrolyte. When in contact with human skin and sensitive mucous membranes, in particular, they can be considered harmful. No chemical components will escape the enclosure during normal battery operation. Nevertheless, abuse and incidents can contribute to exposure risks.